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contrast to the very specialized, only little intelligent and partly
autonomous robots used now, the intelligent full-autonomous and motivated robot (called below
full-autonomous robot) can do many different and complex activities in its surrounding. It has not only
objects and situations appearing in its surrounding, but also models of activities (called activity schemas) which it
this surrounding. This has important practical implications - in many cases, we do not need 3 to 10 specialized
do several different activities, because one full-autonomous robot could do these activities. The following examples
assistance robot for the elderly
surrounding of this full-autonomous assistance robot is a home where
are one or more elderly or disabled persons who need help. The full-autonomous assistance robot
(a) models of objects (e.g the rooms are objects), with their localizations, and possible situations in the home,
models of activities which it can do in the home e.g. getting a glass from the kitchen, cook dinner on the electric
operate washing machine and vacuum cleaner e.t.c. Some so-called "ambient-intelligence-components" could also
in this home.
application of the full-autonomous assistance robot would have the
following advantages, compared with the "ambient-intelligence-home"
(or smart house):
specialized robots, smart appliances and other equipment
(e.g. cameras, sensors and communication net) would be reduced at least by 80%,
a computer for controlling the remaining smart
components is not necessary (the full-autonomous robot would control them),
the full autonomous robot would be able to adapt
easily to changes in a house (e.g. to operate new washing machine),
in contrast to the full-autonomous robot,
"intelligent components" do only few moving activities, which restrict essentially the use of such components, e.g. an
cooking pot" which says when and what I should put in the pot would me help very little, when I must put in the
(cooking recipes fulfill also this "intelligent" function of this pot,
the full-autonomous robot would do similar activities as a
care helper and would be perceived as a substitute for such service person - the elderly would not need to
a home in which are embedded many smart devices and
specialized robots would be strange and frustrating for elder persons, because they are not used to such new
and ought have much time and great motivation to adapt them-self to the very technical new home,
the full-autonomous robot could communicate with people
using simple closes of a natural language.
robot for domestic works
assistance robot for the elderly would be build, then it would be
relative easy to modif'y its software, so that it could do domestic works (as housemaid helper) in a
home (also taking care of children elder than 5 years).
robot used as assistance worker
care or domestic robot would be built, we could modify its software so
that it could be used (a) as assistance worker of
a skilled worker in manufacturers, and (b) for full-autonomous
operation of machines, specialized robots and devices. Application (b) would have great future
leads to manufacturers where all work would be done only by machines, specialized robots and full-autonomous
where the last would operate these machines and specialized robots, and control the whole production process.
solution is cheaper, more reliable and adaptable than a manufacture
with machines, specialized robots and many cameras
and sensors networked with computers which control them and the whole
production process, because:
if the full autonomous robots are used, then 70% to 80% of
cameras, sensors, communication net and control computers would be reduced,
full-autonomous robots would not only control and steer
the production process, but also better recognize errors and irregularities, and repair them if they are not
whole sections of a manufacture could produce without
people, where some full-autonomous robots would communicate all important situations to the
person and this person would sent instructions to some full-autonomous robots.
difficult is to build the full-autonomous robots?
the number of situations the driver should perceive and react is
much more greater than the number of situations in a house,
at most 98% of traffic situations could be recognized by
the driving system, but at least 2% of important situations (some of them may be very dangerous) would not be
by the driving system, and this would lead to serious road accidents,
even in some recognized situations (e.g. an appearance of
three important traffic situations at the same time) the driving system would not be able to react properly
sec, and the human driver would not have time to take-over the driving, recognize the current traffic situations
properly (if the human driver should recognize driving situations and be able to react properly simultaneous with the
system, then the human driver does not need such assistance system).
this great difficulties, some computer scientists are developing such
driving assistance system, and some car companies
like (ii) and (iii) do not occur when the full-autonomous assistance
robot for elderly would be built and used.
robot experts say that the robot doing household chores (e.g. cooking
dinner and washing dishes) could not be built in the next 20 years. This opinion follows from
great focusing of rather simple specialized robots, (b) the belief that
of the world is not realistic and not necessary, and (c) the opinion
that a robot doing many different activities must have goals and must plan its activities.
have in mind a robot which has abilities and intelligence of a human. Such robot indeed could not be built in the next 20
my opinion we need not a human like robot, because it would not be reliable.
full-autonomous robot is not human like - it does not model the world
but only surroundings which are in a house or a manufacture; it can however do many activities of a
said surroundings, although it has not goals and do not plan activities. Said full-autonomous robot for house
be built in 2 - 4 years.
should not or cannot be applied the full-autonomous robot?
reasonable or possible to apply full-autonomous robots every-where. If
a specialized robot do well its job (e.g. a robot which keep eye on rooms in a bank, robots
sewers and specialized mini-robots), then it should not be replaced by the full-autonomous robot.
reasons given in "How difficult is to build....", I do not see how a
reliable full-autonomous robot for driving a car could be built.
use of full-autonomous robot in armed forces would not be reasonable or
full-autonomous robots could not substitute fighting soldiers,
some simple military operations can do specialized robots.
Sept. 11, 2007