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New motivated, intelligent and autonomous robot of the future
A note on existing robots
The existing robots are
neither intelligent enough nor
autonomous, although many specialists say these robots are autonomous.
Actually, they are only partly autonomous, because they perform only
some sequences of motion and/or observations autonomously after
receiving an order. In general, the activities of these robots are
steered and controlled by people, and these robots do not react
independently to situations in their surroundings. Known existing
robots cannot judge which objects, situations and activities are
important at present. Without the last property, robots can be neither
intelligent nor really autonomous.
Project of a motivated full-autonomous robot
I developed the project of a
motivated robot (denoted by aS) which has the following wished
i. it works full-autonomous,
ii. it is high motivated to do his work,
iii. it knows how important is the execution of an activity
iv. it can judge which objects, situations and activities
are important at present,
v. it handles urgent and dangerous situations with
appropriate high priority,
vi. it interrupts the current executed activity, when the
execution of an other activity is more important at present,
vii. it can handle against its norm or rule, when this enables to
handle against a dangerous situation and if this norm or rule is not so
viii. its activities may be very complex, as required for
Full-autonomous robot means, that it itself decides, by means of
motivations and perceived situations, which activity it executes; of
course, the robot performs a command, if its priority is high enough
(where there are commands having highest priority and which the robot
Said norms and rules(vii) protect additionally that the robot aS
get up to mischief and that it behaves friendly towards a human.
The project of this autonomous robot aS is published by:
The motivated full-autonomous robot aS contains:
* a set of needs of aS, e.g. the need to keep
order in a room; such need is a domain in which the robot is active;
* rules and procedures which determine the
current emotion intensities with respect to said needs;
* a set of object and situation models
representing the surrounding of aS;
* a set of complex activity schemas, which the
robot can execute and which use said situation models;
* a subsystem for recognition/perception of
objects and situations;
* the steering and controlling subsystem which
determines and controls the execution of said complex activities;
* the subsystem which executes and controls
elementary motion and
observation activities, which are used in said complex activity schemas.
The existing robots consist
mainly of the said subsystem for
execution of elementary motion and observation activities.
One of the main
difference between existing motivated agent systems and the motivated
autonomous robot is their following behaviors:
- WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organisation), in
Determination und Kontrolle der Aktivitšten eines emotionalen Systems;
Internat. Patent Application: PCT/DE2002/004172; Internat. Publication:
WO 2004/044837 A1 , 27 May 2004,
- US Patent and Trademark Office, in English: Determination
and control of activities of an emotional system, U.S.A. Patent No.: US
7,024,277 B2, 4 April 2006,
- UK Patent Office: UK Patent: GB 2409734;
printed as Application No.: GB 0305707.2 , 06. 07. 2005.
a) Motivated agent systems first
choose/determine a goal and then acomplish simple activities or
operations by which the goal can be achieved (humans behave also in
motivated autonomous robot has not such goals as said in (a). It
perceives situations; if such situation is an initial situation of an
activity schema, then this activity schema is put into the list of
activities which the robot should presently do; by means of the present
motivation to execute an activity, the robot assigns the current
priorities of the activities in said list; and the robot executes the
activity with the highest priority. If the robot achieves a goal
situation of the activity, then it has done well this activity;
otherwise (when it has not achieved a goal situation) then the robot
has done wrong this activity.
3. What is
understood by emotions and motivations of a robot?
Emotions and motivations of a robot
are actually pseudo-emotions
and pseudo-motivations, and they function different than human emotions
and motivations. The emotions of a human are closely associated with
the limbic system. The robot aS does not simulate the limbic system.
Emotion intensities and motivations of a robot are calculated by simple
procedures and rules. There are several methods to determine emotion
intensities and motivation of a robot/agent.
In my papers, emotion intensities and motivations of the robot aS
are determined as follows:
Pseudo-emotions of the robot aS are related to emotions of a human
wings of an aeroplane to wings of a bird - these wings use the same
principle of flying but they are very different.
- First are determined needs of the robot, i.e. domains
robot can be active, e.g. the need to function correctly, the need to
control the functioning of some machines.
- Then, satisfaction and desire intensities with respect to
needs/domains are determined by means of short procedures and rules.
These intensities of satisfactions and desires measure how important a
need of a robot is at present.
- These intensities of satisfactions and desires enable to
stimulus pattern with respect to a need. Such stimulus patterns are
associated with situation and object models. On the basis of stimulus
patterns, associated to a situation or an object, is determined the
present stimulus intensity of this situation or object. This stimulus
intensity measures how good or bad and how important, at present, is
this situation or object for the robot.
- Also other emotion intensities, such as joy and
determined with regard to a need/domain by procedures and rules. The
intensity of joy and dissatisfaction with regard to a need measures how
good or bad the robot made its work in this domain (i.e. with regard to
this need). The intensity of dislike and hate for a situation or an
object measures how great obstacle was this situation or object for the
- By means of said stimulus intensities of some situations
activity schema is determined the motivation of the robot (by a short
procedure) to execute this activity.
Does we need motivated full-autonomous robots?
Robot aS considered in my invention
can be used everywhere where autonomous routine work should be done;
* taking care of ill or old people,
* making housemaid work,
* making routine service for clients,
* as personal assistant,
* making autonomous activities in a
manufacturer, in a desert or on the moon,
* supervise a staff of robots (working e.g. in a
A robot making housemaid work is certainly a better solution than
so called "intelligent apartment" in which the refrigerator says which
food should be bought in and the radiators guess which temperature the
inhabitants would like to have. Such "intelligent apartment" (computer)
can have only relative small number of internal models of objects and
situations, and can execute only few activities.
The motivated full-autonomous robot for housemaid works has
models of all object and situations in the apartment, operates the
devices and machines (e.g. washing machine), gets the meal, takes the
dog for a walk (the silly real emotional full-autonomous system dog
will treat the robot as having higher status) and, in the future, goes
shopping. Such a robot is indeed more comfortable, more useful and
cheaper than the "intelligent apartment".
The existing robots are only the first step in manufacturing
high-quality products. Full-autonomous motivated robots will
manufacture products in great part independent by operating and
controlling other robots and machines, night and day. More about
motivated industry robot
Motivated full-autonomous robots would be able to learn and would
handle intelligently, if appropriate programs are implemented. A robot
cannot actually handle intelligently without pseudo-emotions and
A good produced motivated full-autonomous robot will be a reliable
worker, servant and friend of persons authorised to supervise it.
motivated full-autonomous robots dangerous?
There exist still old ideas about
autonomous robots spread until
now by science fiction literature and films. In these literature and
films, robots are presented as strange beings, which in some cases get
power over people and control them. These are only imaginations far
away from the reality. Nevertheless, these unrealistic imaginations
have partially even some persons which discuss about autonomous robots.
So one such person proposed to enclose a robot in a protective shelter
and fence-off it with light barriers. These would be a good joke, if
not a propaganda against motivated autonomous robots is made by fanning
the flames of such fears and imaginations.
Actually, the motivated full-autonomous robot is a deterministic
(preprogrammed, as programmers say) machine which works as planned,
like other machines. This robot can be active only in its domains (i.e.
in the area of its needs). Implemented norms and rules safeguard
additionally that this motivated autonomous robot does not get up to
mischief. So is a good produced motivated full-autonomous robot less
dangerous than cars; it will be a reliable worker, servant and friend
of persons authorised to supervise it.
6. Can the
motivated full-autonomous robot be made now?
The development of humanoid robots
and robots playing football is
so advanced, that it is only a stone`s throw to motivated
full-autonomous robots. However, even some developer of such robots do
not know it. So, a professor who was involved in developing
football-robots, said that we need still 30 to 50 years to get
emotional full- autonomous robots. This proof's that motivated
emotional autonomous robots are unknown.
Actually, we can produce a motivated full-autonomous robot from a
humanoid or football robot, which can perform the elementary motion and
observation activities, after some technical modifications, by
implementing the method presented in my patent, in 2 - 3 years
dependent on the number of specialists involved. Because the patented
method is implemented by software, the expenses would be relative small.
It is easier to make a motivated full-autonomous industry robot
other full-autonomous robot, because (a) it must not look like a human
and (b) the situations in its surrounding are foreseeable and its
number is not so great, compared e.g. with the number of situations
which a housemaid robot must store.
For more information see "How to make a
motivated autonomous robot"
7. The importance
of motivated full autonomous robots for industry and economics
The existing robots in industry are
only the beginning of using
industry robots. In the near future, many production processes will be
carried out by robots and other machines, where the motivated
full-autonomous robots will operate and control these machines and
other robots. These robots will produce cheap products night and day. More about
motivated industry robot.
In the present global world, it is especially very important for
west Europe nations to use said autonomous robots as cheap and high
motivated workers in manufacturers, service and administration.
Confronted with cheap and high motivated workers in China and
the U.S.A. and the west Europe countries would lose step by step they
leader position in industry and economics if they do not employ, on a
massive scale, high motivated full autonomous and efficient robots.
Although, for example, the production of high-tech aeroplanes is
important for the west Europe nations, the industrial and economic
development of these nations would not stop if the aeroplane production
would stop; but the west Europe countries would be (in the next 20
years) the great loser of the globalisation if they do not produce and
employ, on a massive scale (in the next 10 years), full autonomous
Modified: December 19, 2006
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