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Alfred Schurmann

New motivated, intelligent and autonomous robot of the future


   1. A note on existing robots
   2. Project of a motivated full-autonomous robot
   3. What is understood by emotions and motivations of a robot?
   4. Does we need motivated full-autonomous robots?
   5. Are motivated full-autonomous robots dangerous?
   6. Can motivated full-autonomous robots be made now?
   7. The importance of motivated full-autonomous robots for industry and economics.

1. A note on existing robots

The existing robots are neither intelligent enough nor autonomous, although many specialists say these robots are autonomous. Actually, they are only partly autonomous, because they perform only some sequences of motion and/or observations autonomously after receiving an order. In general, the activities of these robots are steered and controlled by people, and these robots do not react independently to situations in their surroundings. Known existing robots cannot judge which objects, situations and  activities are important at present. Without the last property, robots can be neither intelligent nor really autonomous.

2. Project of a motivated full-autonomous robot

I developed the project of a motivated robot (denoted by aS) which has the following wished properties:

i.    it works full-autonomous,
ii.   it is high motivated to do his work,
iii.  it knows how important is the execution of an activity at present,
iv.  it can judge which objects, situations and activities are important at present,
v.   it handles urgent and dangerous situations with appropriate high priority,
vi.  it interrupts the current executed activity, when the execution of an other activity is more important at present,
vii. it can handle against its norm or rule, when this enables to handle against a dangerous situation and if this norm or rule is not so important,
viii. its activities may be very complex, as required for full-autonomous work.

Full-autonomous robot means, that it itself decides, by means of its motivations and perceived situations, which activity it executes; of course, the robot performs a command, if its priority is high enough (where there are commands having highest priority and which the robot executes always).
Said norms and rules(vii) protect additionally that the robot aS do not get up to mischief and that it behaves friendly towards a human.

The project of this autonomous robot aS is published by:
The motivated full-autonomous robot aS contains:
*    a set of needs of aS, e.g. the need to keep order in a room; such need is a domain in which the robot is active;
*    rules and procedures which determine the current emotion intensities with respect to said needs;
*    a set of object and situation models representing the surrounding of aS;
*    a set of complex activity schemas, which the robot can execute and which use said situation models;
*    a subsystem for recognition/perception of objects and situations;
*    the steering and controlling subsystem which determines and controls the execution of said complex activities;
*    the subsystem which executes and controls elementary motion and observation activities, which are used in said complex activity schemas.

The existing robots consist mainly of the said subsystem for execution of elementary motion and observation activities.

One of the main difference between existing motivated agent systems and the motivated autonomous robot is their following behaviors:
a)     Motivated agent systems first choose/determine a goal and then acomplish simple activities or operations by which the goal can be achieved (humans behave also in this way).
b)     The motivated autonomous robot has not such goals as said in (a). It perceives situations; if such situation is an initial situation of an activity schema, then this activity schema is put into the list of activities which the robot should presently do; by means of the present motivation to execute an activity, the robot assigns the current priorities of the activities in said list; and the robot executes the activity with the highest priority. If the robot achieves a goal situation of the activity, then it has done well this activity; otherwise (when it has not achieved a goal situation) then the robot has done wrong this activity.

3. What is understood by emotions and motivations of a robot?

Emotions and motivations of a robot are actually pseudo-emotions and pseudo-motivations, and they function different than human emotions and motivations. The emotions of a human are closely associated with the limbic system. The robot aS does not simulate the limbic system. Emotion intensities and motivations of a robot are calculated by simple procedures and rules. There are several methods to determine emotion intensities and motivation of a robot/agent.

In my papers, emotion intensities and motivations of the robot aS are determined as follows:
Pseudo-emotions of the robot aS are related to emotions of a human as wings of an aeroplane to wings of a bird - these wings use the same principle of flying but they are very different.

4. Does we need motivated full-autonomous robots?

Robot aS considered in my invention can be used everywhere where autonomous routine work should be done; for example:
*    taking care of ill or old people,
*    making housemaid work,
*    making routine service for clients,
*    as personal assistant,
*    making autonomous activities in a manufacturer, in a desert or on the moon,
*    supervise a staff of robots (working e.g. in a manufacturer).

A robot making housemaid work is certainly a better solution than the so called "intelligent apartment" in which the refrigerator says which food should be bought in and the radiators guess which temperature the inhabitants would like to have. Such "intelligent apartment" (computer) can have only relative small number of internal models of objects and situations, and can execute only few activities.
The motivated full-autonomous robot for housemaid works has internal models of all object and situations in the apartment, operates the devices and machines (e.g. washing machine), gets the meal, takes the dog for a walk (the silly real emotional full-autonomous system dog will treat the robot as having higher status) and, in the future, goes shopping. Such a robot is indeed more comfortable, more useful and cheaper than the "intelligent apartment".

The existing robots are only the first step in manufacturing high-quality products. Full-autonomous motivated robots will manufacture products in great part independent by operating and controlling other robots and machines, night and day. More about motivated industry robot

Motivated full-autonomous robots would be able to learn and would handle intelligently, if appropriate programs are implemented. A robot cannot actually handle intelligently without pseudo-emotions and pseudo-motivations.
A good produced motivated full-autonomous robot will be a reliable worker, servant and friend of persons authorised to supervise it.

5. Are motivated full-autonomous robots dangerous?

There exist still old ideas about autonomous robots spread until now by science fiction literature and films. In these literature and films, robots are presented as strange beings, which in some cases get power over people and control them. These are only imaginations far away from the reality. Nevertheless, these unrealistic imaginations have partially even some persons which discuss about autonomous robots. So one such person proposed to enclose a robot in a protective shelter and fence-off it with light barriers. These would be a good joke, if not a propaganda against motivated autonomous robots is made by fanning the flames of such fears and imaginations.
Actually, the motivated full-autonomous robot is a deterministic (preprogrammed, as programmers say) machine which works as planned, like other machines. This robot can be active only in its domains (i.e. in the area of its needs). Implemented norms and rules safeguard additionally that this motivated autonomous robot does not get up to mischief. So is a good produced motivated full-autonomous robot less dangerous than cars; it will be a reliable worker, servant and friend of persons authorised to supervise it.

6. Can the motivated full-autonomous robot be made now?

The development of humanoid robots and robots playing football is so advanced, that it is only a stone`s throw to motivated full-autonomous robots. However, even some developer of such robots do not know it. So, a professor who was involved in developing football-robots, said that we need still 30 to 50 years to get emotional full- autonomous robots. This proof's that motivated emotional autonomous robots are unknown.
Actually, we can produce a motivated full-autonomous robot from a humanoid or football robot, which can perform the elementary motion and observation activities, after some technical modifications, by implementing the method presented in my patent, in 2 - 3 years dependent on the number of specialists involved. Because the patented method is implemented by software, the expenses would be relative small.
It is easier to make a motivated full-autonomous industry robot than an other full-autonomous robot, because (a) it must not look like a human and (b) the situations in its surrounding are foreseeable and its number is not so great, compared e.g. with the number of situations which a housemaid robot must store.
For more information see "How to make a motivated autonomous robot"

7. The importance of motivated full autonomous robots for industry and economics

The existing robots in industry are only the beginning of using industry robots. In the near future, many production processes will be carried out by robots and other machines, where the motivated full-autonomous robots will operate and control these machines and other robots. These robots will produce cheap products night and day. More about motivated industry robot.

In the present global world, it is especially very important for the west Europe nations to use said autonomous robots as cheap and high motivated workers in manufacturers, service and administration.

Confronted with cheap and high motivated workers in China and India, the U.S.A. and the west Europe countries would lose step by step they leader position in industry and economics if they do not employ, on a massive scale, high motivated full autonomous and efficient robots.

Although, for example, the production of high-tech aeroplanes is very important for the west Europe nations, the industrial and economic development of these nations would not stop if the aeroplane production would stop; but the west Europe countries would be (in the next 20 years) the great loser of the globalisation if they do not produce and employ, on a massive scale (in the next 10 years), full autonomous robots.

Dr.Alfred Schurmann

Email: alfschurman@yahoo.de                                                           Modified:  December 19,  2006

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