Additional argument for "Life did not arise evolutionary"

Multicellular animals did not evolve from unicellular organisms

Dr Alfred Schurmann- computer scientist and mathematician

See also: 1)  Adaptive immune system did not evolve by mutations and selection (added January 23, 2009)
Human did not evolve by random cell alterations and selection  (added March 23, 2009)
                  3)   Idea of the anti-Darwin theory of developing of life ; in German, only summary in English (added June 15, 2009)

Belief and trust are good, but exact science and reasoning are better

Summary. The aim of this paper is to prove that multicellular eukaryotes could not evolve from uni-cellular organisms (like protozoans or  bacteria)  by chance, mutations and selection. First, a protozoan like system, especially it control software with repair procedures, is characterized. Then all possible mutations of a protozoan cell are listed. These allow to state the problem: can a finite sequence of mutations transform protozoan system into a multicellular eukaryote system? To prove that it cannot, the super complex software, SMP, for developing a living eukaryote animal from a fertilized egg is characterized. Then it is shown that a finite sequence of mutations cannot transform protozoan systems into a system contianing SMP software.

Introduction. In "Life did not arise evolutionary", I describe fly Drosophila (representing simple multi-cellular animals) as a system consisting of structured molecules in which is implemented software, which control and direct the functioning of this system. I characterized the structure and complexity of this software and the software stored in uni-cellular protozoans. I show (in that paper) that the complexity of the software stored in unicellular organisms is essential much lower than the complexity of the software implemented in any multi-cellular eukaryote, and that therefore multi-cellular animals could not evolve from uni-cellular protozoans automatically by chance, mutations and selection. However the arguments in said paper do not convince some evolutionists, believing that multi-cellular eukaryote systems evolved from protozoan like systems by chance, mutations and selection. Some geneticists who research mainly molecular properties of cells do not want to see that a cell is also a very complex information system and the molecules are only the lowest level of this system. So I decided to show that the complexity of software implemented in an animal system determines essentially the complexity of this system, and I give an exact proof that mutations and selection in a protozoan system cannot transform such system into a multi-cellular eukaryote system.
Protozoan like system
            I used:  P. Snustad & M. Simmons [SMS] (2006), Stechmann & Cavalier-Smith [SCS] (2003), Encyclopedia Britannica [EBR], Web site [CLA],  M. Sogin & colleagues [SCO] and "Life did not arise evolutionary".
Protozoan is a single eukaryote cell comprising:
z1)     cell-membrane consisting of molecules; it bounds the cell;
z2)     cytoplasm, which contains many proteins and organelles;
z3)     one or more nucleuses, which contains at least one eukaryotic chromosome comprising sequences of eukaryotic DNAs, and each DNA is a sequence of nucleotides, which contain eukaryotic genes, and in an eukaryotic gene is implemented a meta-program for synthesis of proteins, where such meta-program is a system of instructions and conditions for making-up programs which steer and control synthesis of proteins; the general form of such meta-program is:
              sequence of conditions (Pr) and controlling instructions (SIj); sequence of exons (ISd) and introns (Int)
where Pr denotes a promoter,
SIj  denotes an enhancer, a repressor or other regulation-controlling instruction (before a promoter)
ISd  is an exon i.e. a sequence of coding instructions, and
Int  is an intron, which may store regulation instructions SIj, operations miRNA and IntO, where miRNA is a short program for excision of coding instructions ISd in the pre-mRNA got after transcription, or miRNA suppresses the translation of the got mRNA, and operation IntO determines which exons should be canceled (inactive); nucleuses are surrounded by a membrane and contain also ribosomal RNAs (denoted by rRNA) and other proteins (s. P. Snustad & M. Simmons [SMS] (2006));
z4)       mitochondria - they are in the cytoplasm, produce energy and contain mitochondrial chromosome with mitochondrial DNAs (denoted by mtDNA); in mtDNA are implemented meta-programs which control the synthesis of mitochondrial RNAs and some polypeptides;
z5)      ribosomes (denoted below by Rib) - they contain proteins and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs);
z6)      other organelles;
z7)      a control software (denoted by StP) implemented in DNAs of said chromosomes; especially the software StP contains the following procedures (s. P. Snustad & M. Simmons [SMS] (2006)):

pr1)      TrE(TF,gen) - it is the known transcription operation, where TF stands for transcription factors (i.e. meta-instructions) which initialize the procedure TrE with respect to the gene gen; the result of this procedure is a pre-RNA with introns and niR, where niR equals to nil or to miRNA (micro RNA); TrE is a meta-procedure because it makes a simpler meta-program from the meta-program stored in gen, applying the meta-instruction TF ;
pr2)    Spl(pre-RNA) -  it is the known meta-operation for splicing (also alternate splicing) of pre-RNA; the result of this procedure is an mRNA (got from gen), i.e. a program for
synthesis of a protein;
pr3)     the execution of the meta-program gen proceeds as follows::
        TrE(TF,gen); Spl(pre-RNA);
        if niR = miRNA then begin meta-program miRNA degrades or inactivates the program mRNA - the result is a program mRNA`;
          if mRNA' is not inactive then PS(mRNA`,Rib) else no translation, i.e. the program mRNA` will not be executed end
         else PS(mRNA,Rib);
This meta-program, implemented in gen, builds the end-program, mRNA` or mRNA, for translation (i.e. for synthesis of a protein), where mRNA` may be empty; 
pr4)     PS(mRNA,Rib) - it is the procedure for translation, where Rib denotes a ribosome; this procedure executes the program mRNA and in this way produces a protein;

pr5)     Mpc(Prc) - it is the known meta-procedure for replication of an animal cell Prc. The procedure makes-up two identical daughter cells Prc1 and Prc2 (if no mistakes occur). The procedure is done in five steps:
Phase 1: centrosome duplicates and move apart; chromosomes replicate;
Metaphase: nuclear membrane breaks down and chromosomes move to metaphase plate;
Anaphase: separation of sister centromores and chromosomes;
Telephase: new nuclear membranes envelope each separated sister chromosomes:
Citokinesis: cleavage furrow splits cell into two Prc1 and Prc2.
        In StP software are also programs which scan DNAs for damages and initiate the following procedures which repair many damages (mutations) (s.  P. Snustad & M. Simmons [SMS] (2006)):
Exis-rep: this procedure excises the damaged bases in DNA; then it fills in the gap by using the undamaged complementary strand of the DNA; and then it seals the break.
Mismatch-rep: it corrects mismatched nucleotides in newly synthesized DNA, during the replication process, by using the original nucleotide sequence.
Postreplic-rep: when the said scan procedure detects a thymine dimer in DNA strand then it interrupts the process and restarts the synthesis by using a homologous DNA strand; the part of the original nucleotide sequence beginning at the gap is lost (s. [SMS]).
SOS-response: it is the error-prone-repair system - a system of procedures which are applied when DNAs are heavily damaged; SOS-genes-programs are activated - they repair and replicate damaged DNAs using related nucleotide sequences; these replications are not accurate, so replication errors occur; thus the SOS-response build gene mutations (s. [SMS]).
              A mutation of a protozoan transforms it into a nonfunctional system or in an other single eukaryote cell. Some mutations of protozoans are caused by said repair procedures (postreplic-rep, SOS-response). Below , I give other mutations which transfer protozoan systems (s.  P. Snustad & M. Simmons [SMS] (2006)).
Inversion: a chromosome segment is detached, flipped around 180, and reattached to the rest of the chromosome. It can be induced by X-irradiation, transposable elements or by mechanical agents.
Recombination: a DNA segment, z, is moved to an other DNA (and chromosome) in place of a segment, y, and simultaneously segment y is moved to the place where segment z has been.
Transpos-elem: there are two main types of transposable element mutations in eukaryotes:
a)     insertion-sequences (or IS elements): an IS element is excised from chromosome or mitochondria and then inserted into another position at the same or different DNA, where this element itself controls this process;
b)     retrotransposon - it uses RNA, associated with this transposable element, as a program (template) and makes-up a sequence of DNA molecules; then it inserts this sequence into a new chromosome site.
Transduction: it is a mutation caused by viruses or bacteria - they destroy the protozoan (i.e. degrade its DNAs) or transfer protozoan genes to other uni-cellular genes, or DNA of a virus or bacterium integrates in the protozoan chromosome, or bacteria may live in symbiosis in the protozoan cell.
Conjugation: DNA segments of a donor protozoan is inserted into the chromosome or mitochondria of the recipient protozoan.
Nonsense-mut: it is a mutation of a termination triplet or it produces termination triplets within genes; these mutations are often non-functional.
Missense-mut: this mutation changes a triplet in a gene (i.e. an instruction in a program) so that it specifies a different aminoacid, and the mutated gene (altered program) produces altered (at one place) polypeptide.
Suppressor-mut: it is a mutation in tRNAs that suppresses other mutations (e.g. some nonsense mutations).
Induced-mut: they are caused by physical or chemical agents; radioactive radiations damage and degenerate DNAs; some such degeneration are repaired by said repair procedures; a chemical agent can transform protozoan gene only into an other protozoan gene , or into a degenerated or damaged non-functional gene.

Different roles of gene mutations. The same molecular change in a gene fragment may have different effect, depending on the function of  this gene fragment:
a) if gene produces a protein which is not essential for the metabolic or replication process, then its mutation does not lead to non-functional protozoan;
b) if gene produces a protein needed in metabolic, then its mutation (which does not produce the needed protein) blocks the metabolic pathway and the protozoan activates its repair procedures;
c) mutations in replicative or regulative gene segments alter the gene - meta-program, in most cases to wrong or non-functional ones;
d) mutation in a gene (meta-program), which is switched off (i.e. it is not used in normal living processes) does not change the the living processes of the protozoan - such mutation influence the protozoan only if the repair system activates (switched on) this gene/meta-program;
e) mutation of a repair procedure (i.e. in gene where this procedure is implemented) alters this procedure, in most cases to a wrong or non-functional one.
            The above listed mutations are all operations by which protozoan systems can be transformed. There are also
symbiotic specialization of protozoan like cells: they can live in a symbiotic way in a colony; in such colony single eukaryote cels may be specialized; however in each such cell is implemented only said StP control software.
             The aim of this paper is to solve the following
Problem: can a finite sequence of of said mutations transform protozoan system into a multi-cellular eukaryote system?
Below I prove that the answer is "no".

             A simple multicellular eukaryote system like sea-urchin or roundworm Rhabditidae(s. D. Fitch [FIT]) has the following essential feature which protozoan like systems do not have. Sea urchin produces either eggs (called oocytes) or sperms, in which is implemented a super-meta-program (denoted by pre-SMP(E) and pre-SMP(S), respectively) comprising more than sixty meta-programs. When egg is fertilized with sperm, then the software pre-SMP(E) and pre-SMP(S) unite and build the developing and control software SMP which is implemented in the fertilized egg; the maternal genes ( i.e. maternal meta-programs) have build the first outline of the spatial body plan in which meta-instructions and meta-programs are inserted in three regions (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) of the plan.Then in each region are activated the said inserted meta-programs which develop further the spatial body plan with new regions in which are inserted new instructions and meta-programs. These meta-programs are activated and they produce tissues with new inserted instructions and meta-programs. When activated, they develop new spatial plans for further body organs; in this spatial organ plans are also inserted instructions and meta-programs for further development of these organs. In general, said differentiation of regions do not develop independently; they send steering signals to neighbor regions to coordinate their development. The process of building spatial plans of organs and then realizing it continues until a new animal is developed. This process is characterized in more details in my paper "Life did not arise evolutionary" (2) and in  P. Snustad & M. Simmons [SMS] (2006) or E. Davidson [DAV] (2001).
            To solve the said problem, I show below that there does not exist a finite sequence of protozoan mutations which transform protozoan software into the multi-cellular eukaryote software pre-SMP(E) or preSMP(S).
Let Prot be a protozoan system - thus, no meta-program (gene) from pre-SMP(E) or pre-SMP(S) is stored in Prot.
First, we consider the case when mutation of type (a),...,(c) or (e) occured, thus it is a mutation of a gene which is not switched off (it is in activated state). By such mutation protozoan Prot is transformed into a system Prot1.
i) If this mutation is inversion, recombination, transpos-elem IS (type (a)), conjugation, missense-mut, suppressor-mut, then Prot1 is also protozoan system of the type Prot, but it may contain additional genes which are of type (d) (i.e. switched off).
ii) If the mutation is transduction then Prot1 is either a destroyed system or it contains only genes and gene segments which occur in Prot or bacteria or viruses (
Prot1 may have additional switched off genes); thus, Prot1 has no gene which stores a meta-program occurring in pre-SMP(E) or pre-SMP(S), so it is of type Prot.
iii) If the mutation is replication or reapair-mut, nonsense-mut or induced, then Prot1 is a destroyed system (with degenerated DNAs) or it is in a damaged state in which it activates its repair procedures which lead to a non-functional or mutated system in which some genes may have been switched on and some other switched off; if the switched on genes do not store a meta-program from pre-SMP(E) or pre-SMP(S) then this mutated system is a Prot like one.
iv) If the mutation is the retransposon then  Prot1 is also a Prot like protozoan (we assume that protozoans have no programs for producing sub-meta-programs of pre-SMP(E) or pre-SMP(S)).
           Now we consider the case when mutation is of type (d), i.e. switched off genes (sequences of instructions) have been mutated and the protozoan system is functioning. In this case genes alter randomly because there is no selection as long as these genes are in switched off state. Such gene mutations do not convert to any functioning program, especially such transformations cannot convert to a sequence of instructions building a meta-program contained in the software pre-SMP(E) or pre-SMP(S) (note: in pre-SMP(E) are more than sixty very complex meta-programs). Random mutations transforms genes/programs into non-functional sequence of instructions or non-interpretable molecule sequences.
Thus, the switched on genes, by mutations mentioned in (iii), cannot store a meta-program from pre-SMP(E) or pre-SMP(S). Thus, accumulated mutations in protozoans could not lead to multicellular eukar
Conclusion: Multicellular eukaryotes did not evolve from protozoan like systems.

[DAV]   E. H. Davidson: Genomic Regulatory Systems - Development and Evolution; Academic Press; San Diego,..., USA (2001).
[EBR]    Encyclopedia Britannica
[FIT]      D. Fitch
[SCO]    M. Sogin & colleagues, Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusets,USA
[SCS]     Stechmann & Cavalier-Smith:  The root of the eukaryote tree pinpointed; Current Biology,13/17: 665-666 (2003)
[SMS]    D. P. Snustad & M. J. Simmons; Principles of Genetics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., USA (2006).

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Alfred Schurmann

First version made on:  November 09, 2008; modified November 12, 2008
Copyright November 09, 2008